The Carpet-Making Process

On the current page you will find valuable information for the general production ofhandmade carpets, materials and colors and their Knüpfmethoden and knotting techniques.
If you still have unanswered questions about carpet manufacturing, please contact us,we will advise you.

Carpet making - Knotting

The knotting starts always from the bottom to the top. Usually horizontal warp threads are firstly shot through the vertical warp threads. The result is a powerful edge onto which the series of nodes may be attached. The carpet will be given through this way strength and the merger of the nodes bulking becomes more difficult. The rows of nodes will be put on the pile-free edge. Each node is wound around two warp threads based on the knot type, Persian or Turkish, with a piece of weaving yarn. After forging a node, the knotter cuts off the yarn at a length of 7 cm and draws the yarn ends down.

As a result, the node is tightened on the one hand and on the other hand the pile receives a direction. It is the reason for the different colour appearances of a carpet at different angles. After a series of nodes is completed in the full width, one shoots through the warp threads weft threads. Then, one fixates the node row and weft threads through with the ridge. After about 4 to 6 rows, one brings the the yarnends of the knotting threads to a uniform length. One also talks from a provisional shearing, because the final shearing is carried out after completion of the carpet by a specialist. The final pile length depends on several aspects, for instance the density of the knots, the type of carpet, the wishes of the carpet dealer or the customer.

Typically, nomads prefer carpets with a longer shearing (as it is a good soil insulation against cold) while the weavers in the town give priority to a shorter pile. The carpet ends similarly as it started. Weft threads, which form a kind of small Kelim, are struck down hard onto the previous node series. The remaining loose warp yarns at the beginning and at the end of the carpet form the fringes. They are often tied or knotted, so that the Kelim fans in the course of time. Now the carpet must get only his final shearing and a final washing before he can be sold. However, these two processing steps are not negligible and are run with the utmost care. Only a perfect shearing and a first-class laundry make a previously perfect piece into a masterpiece. The carpet coming from the weaving chair is still raw and not presentable. Too much loose wool and too much ink.

The laundry sorts and smoothes the pile and lets the motif represent itself better. The closing finish make the wool additionally softer and give it more shininess. One differentiates roughly between two types of washes; the simple stream wash with subsequent drying in the sun and a modern western laundry with complex chemical processes (Swiss Wash). An interesting aspect of a wash is that it can change colors if one requires it to (example: Gold Blanford).

Carpet making - Weaving Chair and devices

As oriental rugs are knotted carpets, a weaving chair must be used for their manufacturing. A distinction between four different types of knotting chairs can be made:

  • Horizontal lying weaving chair
  • Rigid upright weaving chair
  • Upright Tabriz weaving chair
  • Upright weaving chair with revolving weaver trees

The lying weaving chair is the oldest of its kind. It consists of two poles to which the warp threads are tied. In order for it not to move during work the weaving chair needs to be fixed to the ground. The rigid upright loom is also called the village weaving chair. This consists of two parallel standing beams, onto the above and below a rigid cross-beam is attached. The space between the bars serves as an anchor point for the warp yarns. The knot begins from the bottom for this loom. The development of the rigid upright loom is the so-called Tabriz loom. It is widely used in the Persian centers. The warp yarns are spun around from the top bar to the bottom bar to the top.

As one can imagine a front and back is created and thus represents a closed loop. This allows at the end of the front part, through turning the loom around, the further knotting and thus twice the length of carpet can be knotted. The latest development of the weaving Chair is the rotation of the upper and lower bars. The upper crosspiece is used to wrap up the warp yarns and to lead them to the bottom. The lower bar is then understood as the so-called warp beam, onto which the completed parts of the carpet are continuously rolled up. Thus, very long carpets can be achieved with this device.

Carpet making - Yarns

The yarns are woven of wool, silk or cotton depending on the quality of the rug. Yarn is required for pile, warp and weft yarns. The pile is often made of wool and silk, however, one uses mostly cotton yarns for warp and weft on the basis of a higher durability. The wool is mostly sheep or camel hair wool. After the wool is washed and defatted she can be colored.

Carpet making - Colors

Above all, the Persians carpets are most famous for their great colours. The dyeing of wool is one of most important arts under the carpet-making. It requires complicated preparation processes so that the woven wool - but also other materials - can hold the color better.

After for example the wool has been washed and degreased it will then be placed into an alum bath for 12 hours. This process must be repeated once more before the yarn can be placed into in a bath of color. In this bath it will rest depending on the colour and the colour intensity which may take hours or days. Until the invention of artificial colors were colors used based on natural substances such as plants, animals, mineral substances or the sorting of appropriate wool tones.

Above all the Persians were world famous for the very high number of tones won plant-based. After the colorization is the wool i.e. the colorized material placed into the sun to dry.

Carpet making - Knots

After clamping the warp yarns on the weaving chair the knotting may commence. In the knotting technique there are mainly two types of knots, the Turkish and the Persian knots. The Turkish knot is also known as the Ghiordes knot. This will arise when one wraps one weaving thread to two adjacent warp threads and then pulls the ends forward between the warp threads. The Persian node, the Senneh node, is one end of the weaving thread flung around a chain thread and then the other end flung around the next chain thread.

(Kopie 1)

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